Paul Turner Stats, News And Video
An ongoing area of study considerations viral ecology, which addresses how viruses work together molecularly within their hosts, between their hosts, and with their environment. In particular, Turner and his laboratory members have used both phages and viruses of eukaryotes as laboratory models for elucidating evolutionary guidelines of RNA virus emergence. Paul Turner is the Elihu Professor of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at Yale University, and school member in Microbiology at Yale School of Medicine. He studies the evolutionary genetics of viruses, notably bacteriophages that specifically infect bacterial pathogens, and RNA viruses which are vector-transmitted by mosquitoes.
Turner and colleagues, for instance, used RNA viruses to show that organic populations may be incapable of evolving to adapt in environments with random temperature changes, which is according to the predictions of some local weather change models . His staff additionally tracked molecular evolution in RNA virus populations to reveal that different mutations occur when viruses leap quickly versus steadily to novel host species . Turner’s RNA virus research have examined the evolutionary genetics of specialism versus generalism with the aim of figuring out how and why viruses evolve to turn into broad or slender in their host breadth. In 2000, with Elena, he confirmed how single-host use in RNA viruses leads to developed specialization, whereas progress on alternating hosts selects for virus generalists . Turner and his team then demonstrated that viruses can quickly speciate when evolving on a new host species . Turner transferred to Michigan State University, where he earned a doctorate in zoology in 1995.
Evolutionary Constraints Of Viruses
Turner obtained numerous professional presents earlier than accepting a place at Yale as assistant professor within the college’s Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology in 2001. In 2002 he was invited to affix the US delegation in a joint United States–Russia workshop on infectious disease in Novosibirsk. “I was honored to be chosen for the delegation and to visit the State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology , which houses considered one of solely two samples on the earth of the smallpox virus,” Turner says. Another evaluation of RNA viruses discovered that when genetic adjustments randomly happen in their genomes, populations can evolve mutational robustness that buffers deleterious fitness results . Since robust viruses tolerate higher mutation frequencies, evolution of robustness could allow much less accurate genome replication.
Dr. Turner received a Biology degree from University of Rochester, and Ph.D. in Zoology from Michigan State University. He did postdoctoral training at National Institutes of Health, University of Valencia in Spain, and University of Maryland-College Park, before joining Yale’s Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Department in 2001. He chaired the Watkins Graduate Research Fellowship award committee for ASM, and acquired the E.E. Just Endowed Research Fellowship and William Townsend Porter Award from Marine Biological Laboratory, and fellowships from Woodrow Wilson Foundation, NSF, NIH and HHMI. Dr. Turner has served as Director of Graduate Studies and as Chair of the Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Department at Yale, as well as Yale’s Dean of Science and Chair of the Biological Sciences Advisory and Tenure Promotion Committees.
Conducting interdisciplinary and experimental evolution studies of microbes, Turner and his colleagues elucidate virus evolution and ecology and host–parasite interactions, among other subjects. Turner, who was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 2019, additionally conducts utilized research on the event of virus-primarily based therapies that hold promise for combating antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens. His Inaugural Article contributes to that physique of analysis, which helps to launch a brand new era in phage biotechnology. Turner’s analysis has led to renewed curiosity in the medical potential of phages. In a recent evaluation, he and colleagues compared phage remedy with chemical antibiotics and highlighted their potential synergies when utilized in mixture . The article emphasizes that the new method not only uses viruses to kill pathogenic micro organism, but additionally selects for elevated antibiotic sensitivity in the remaining bacterial population.
- Paul Turner is the Elihu Professor of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at Yale University, and school member in Microbiology at Yale School of Medicine.
- He also often collaborates together with his graduate college students and postdoctoral fellows, crediting his students and mentees for their inspiration and assist through the years.
- With Lenski and a colleague, Turner used plasmids as models to check the theorized systematic trade-off between infectious and intergenerational modes of parasite transmission .
- at Imperial College London, the place his sponsors include John Warner, Stephen Durham and Gideon Lack.
Turner’s analysis incessantly makes use of microbes as mannequin systems to check evolutionary and ecological theories. With Lenski and a colleague, Turner used plasmids as fashions to check the theorized systematic trade-off between infectious and intergenerational modes of parasite transmission . The researchers confirmed that infectious parasites can not evolve to concurrently maximize horizontal and vertical transfers between hosts.